Wenni Chen1, Yewei Bao1, Yu Yu1, Ruirui Xu1, Shuyan Yang2, Hui Han2, Gengzhen Chen1*
1Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China
2Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China
Amy Lawson Moore1*, Christina Ledbetter2
1Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research, Colorado Springs, CO, USA
2Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA
Mainstream approaches to treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children include stimulant medication such as methylphenidate and behavior therapy that target deficits in attention as well as inappropriate behaviors but do not sufficiently address the multiple cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. Deficits beyond attention have been identified in ADHD including working memory, long-term memory, and processing speed. As key elements of cognition and intelligence that contribute to thinking and learning, these are critical deficits found in children with ADHD that must be addressed. In this review, we discuss existing research on cognitive training interventions for ADHD and evaluate their ability to target these multiple cognitive deficits as well as their ability to promote self-efficacy, social cognition, and motivation during training. We describe research on LearningRx, a clinician-delivered cognitive training intervention and suggest that human delivery enhances motivation and promotes social cognition and self-efficacy while strengthening weak cognitive skills associated with ADHD in children.Read More
Wenni Chen, Yu Yu, Ruirui Xu, Hui Han, Gengzhen Chen*
Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China
Background: Both Helicobacter pylori-infected peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and depression are common in older adults. Although H. helicobacter eradication has significantly reduced the risk of PUD recurrence, it remains unknown whether such therapy achieves comparable effect among older patients with and without depression.
Aim: To compare PUD recurrence rates in depressed and non-depressed older patients after successful H. pylori eradication, and to evaluate the prospective effect of self-reported and diagnosed depression on PUD recurrence.
Methods: 978 older patients with previous H. pylori-infected PUD were included after H. pylori eradication, and followed for up to 36 months. Using endoscopic examination, PUD recurrence rates among depressed and non-depressed older patients were compared. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to ascertain the prospective relationship between depression and PUD recurrence.
Results: PUD recurrence rate was higher in patients with self-reported depression (10.9%) than those without (6.2%). Apart from self-reported depression (OR 2.418 (1.232, 4.989), other significant predictors of PUD recurrence included H. pylori reinfection (OR 2.815 (1.198, 4.687), cigarette smoking (OR 2.318 (1.238, 4.862), excessive alcohol drinking (OR 2.287 (1.118, 4.677), high green tea consumption (OR 2.107 (1.025, 4.325), regular ingestion of acetaminophen (OR 2.273 (1.238, 4.218) and NSAIDs (OR 3.341 (2.174, 5.187), as well as regular (OR 3.372 (2.087, 5.298), occasional (OR 3.096 (2.032, 5.162), and infrequent aspirin consumption (OR 2.645 (1.218, 4.562). Similar results were yielded on the association between diagnosed depression and PUD recurrence.
Conclusion: PUD recurrence following H. pylori eradication is higher in depressed than in non-depressed older patients. PUD recurrence is also attributed by other clinical and behavioral factors. Results of this study sheds lights on the pathways underlying the association between multidimensional factors and PUD recurrence, which provides important implication for clinical practice in geriatric settings.Read More