Vol 5-1 Review of Literature

Childhood Adverse Events and the Long-Term Effects on Mental Health

Kathryn Pitten*

Territory Business Manager, Boston, Alkermes, USA

Background: There has long been an association between family history and mental illness; however, recently, researchers have focused on the correlation between childhood adverse events and mood disorders, specifically bipolar disorder.
Methods: A literature search of peer reviewed journals published from 2015 to 2020 was conducted using the keywords: childhood adverse events, childhood adversity, childhood trauma, bipolar disorder, mental illness, and mood disorders from the EBSCO database which included, APA PsychArticles, Child Development and Adolescent Studies, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and MEDLINE.
Results: : The results demonstrate a strong correlation between childhood adverse events and bipolar disorder specifically, sexual abuse in females, maternal separation, economic difficulties and family history of mental illness. Specific childhood adverse events show a correlation with specific types of mental illness. The recollection of abuse is associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Additionally, childhood adverse events are associated with clinical outcomes of bipolar disorder including age of onset, chronicity, psychotic episodes and suicidality.
Conclusion: : The findings suggest that females that experience childhood adverse events may be at a higher risk for developing bipolar disorder and the clinical outcome of bipolar disorder may also be affected by the type and number of childhood adverse events. The results also suggest that schizophrenic spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are associated with different childhood adverse events. Females who have recollections of childhood abuse are at an increased risk for depressive symptoms associated with bipolar disorder. Psychosocial interventions that are geared towards limiting childhood adverse events may reduce the incidence of mental illness, specifically bipolar disorder.

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Vol 5-1 Review Article

Negative Health Review of Cell Phones and Social Media

Danielle M. Viola*

Tranquil Tides Mental Health & Wellness, LLC, USA

Cell phone and social media usage have become intriguing topics to explore and discuss over recent years. This research aims to review correlations of negative effects in mental and physical health caused by cell phone and social media use in the past two decades. The history of cell phones and their capabilities will be introduced. The need for human connection will be emphasized.  Exploration of the connection between unbalanced use and different aspects of health will be evaluated such as addiction, social influences, brain changes, and multitasking. Lastly, resources and recommendations to find balance and support for anyone being adversely affected by cell phones and social media will be provided. Current literature reveals that there is a negative correlation between increased cell phone and social media use with human connection, mental health, and physical health.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2021/1.1232 View / Download Pdf