Vol 8-1 Mini Review Article

Diagnosing Human Trafficking Victims: A Mini-Review and Perspective

Sheldon X. Zhang1, Rumi Kato Price2*

1School of Criminology and Criminal Justice Studies, University of Massachusetts at Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA

2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

The global campaign against human trafficking, also known as trafficking in persons, has gained much momentum in the past two decades. Although psychiatric and physical illness sequela of human trafficking are well documented, the research community continues to struggle over such foundational questions as what specific activities or experiences count as trafficking-in-persons victimization and how best to obtain representable and generalizable data on experiences of people who are trafficked. We provide a brief review of major efforts to define trafficking in persons to establish prevalence estimates to date. We argue for consensus on key clinical and public health indicators, resembling the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) approach to enable common and systematic knowledge building and comparability across studies.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2024/1.1292 View / Download Pdf
Vol 8-1 Original Article

Immigration, Educational Attainment, and Subjective Health in the United States

Rifath Ara Alam Barsha1, Babak Najand2, Hossein Zare3,4, Shervin Assari5,6,7*

1School of Community Health & Policy, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD, USA

2Marginalization Related Diminished returns, Los Angeles, CA, USA

3Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

4University of Maryland Global Campus, Health Services Management, Adelphi, Maryland, USA

5Department of Family Medicine, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA

6Department of Internal Medicine, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA

7Department of Urban Public Health, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Objectives: Although educational attainment is a major social determinant of health, according to Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs), the effect of education tends to be weaker for marginalized groups compared to the privileged groups. While we know more about marginalization due to race and ethnicity, limited information is available on MDRs of educational attainment among US immigrant individuals.

Aims: This study compared immigrant and non-immigrant US adults aged 18 and over for the effects of educational attainment on subjective health (self-rated health; SRH).

Methods: Data came from General Social Survey (GSS) that recruited a nationally representative sample of US adults from 1972 to 2022. Overall, GSS has enrolled 45,043 individuals who were either immigrant (4,247; 9.4%) and non-immigrant (40,796; 90.6%). The independent variable was educational attainment, the dependent variable was SRH (measured with a single item), confounders were age, gender, race, employment and marital status, and moderator was immigration (nativity) status.

Results: Higher educational attainment was associated with higher odds of good SRH (odds ratio OR = 2.08 for 12 years of education, OR = 2.81 for 13-15 years of education, OR = 4.38 for college graduation, and OR = 4.83 for graduate studies). However, we found significant statistical interaction between immigration status and college graduation on SRH, which was indicative of smaller association between college graduation and SRH for immigrant than non-immigrant US adults.

Conclusions: In line with MDRs, the association between educational attainment and SRH was weaker for immigrant than non-immigrant. It is essential to implement two sets of policies to achieve health inequalities among immigrant populations: policies that increase educational attainment of immigrants and those that increase the health returns of educational attainment for immigrants.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2024/1.1299 View / Download Pdf
Vol 8-1 Commentary

Commentary: Black Mothers in Racially Segregated Neighborhoods Embodying Structural Violence: PTSD and Depressive Symptoms on the South Side of Chicago

Loren Henderson1*, Ruby Mendenhall2, Meggan J Lee3

1The School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA

2Department of Sociology, Department of African American Studies, Carle Illinois College of Medicine, IL, USA

3Carle Illinois College of Medicine, Urbana, IL, USA

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2024/1.1291 View / Download Pdf
Vol 8-1 Original Article

Exposure to Adverse Life Events among Children Transitioning into Adolescence: Intersections of Socioeconomic Position and Race

Shervin Assari1,2,3*, Babak Najand4, Alexandra Donovan1

1Department of Internal Medicine, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA

2Department of Family Medicine, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA

3Department of Urban Public Health, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA

4Marginalization related Diminished Returns Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Background: Racism is shown to diminish the protective effects of family socioeconomic position (SEP) resources for racial minorities compared to the majority groups, a pattern called minorities’ diminished returns. Our existing knowledge is minimal about diminished returns of family SEP indicators on reducing exposure to adverse life events among children transitioning into adolescence. Aim: To compare diverse racial groups for the effects of family income and family structure on exposure to adverse life events of pre-adolescents transitioning to adolescence.

Methods: In this longitudinal study, we analyzed data from 22,538 observations belonging to racially diverse groups of American 9–10-year-old children (n = 11,878) who were followed while transitioning to adolescence. The independent variables were family income and family structure. The primary outcome was the number of stressful life events with impact on adolescents, measured by the Life History semi-structured interview. Mixed-effects regression models were used for data analysis to adjust for data nested to individuals, families, and centers.

Results: Family income and married family structure had an overall inverse association with children’s exposure to adverse life events during transition to adolescence. However, race showed significant interactions with family income and family structure on exposure to adverse life events. The protective effects of family income and married family structure were weaker for African American than White adolescents. The protective effect of family income was also weaker for mixed/other race than White adolescents.

Conclusion: While family SEP is protective against children’s exposure to adverse life events, this effect is weaker for African American and mixed/other race compared to White youth.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2024/1.1293 View / Download Pdf
Vol 7-3 Case Report

Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Depression Associated with Developmental Prosopagnosia: A Case Report

Kaishi Imatani1, Takeshi Inoue2*, Yuji Oto1, Tasuku Kitajima2, Ryoko Otani2, Satoshi F Nakashima3, So Kanazawa4, Masami K. Yamaguchi5, Ryoichi Sakuta2, Tomoyo Matsubara1

1Department of Pediatrics, Dokkyo Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Koshigaya, Saitama, Japan

2Child Development and Psychosomatic Medicine Center, Dokkyo Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Koshigaya, Saitama, Japan

3Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Human Environments, Okazaki, Aichi, Japan

4Department of Psychology, Japan Women’s University, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan

5Department of Psychology, Chuo University, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan

Developmental prosopagnosia is a disorder of facial recognition that begins during early childhood in the absence of acquired central nervous system disease. We report the case of a 15-year-old female with developmental prosopagnosia as measured by the 20-item Prosopagnosia Index and Cambridge Face Memory Test who ultimately developed generalized anxiety disorder and depression despite relatively normal social and psychological function during early childhood. In elementary school, the case patient adapted by learning alternative ways to identify others, such as by clothing and hairstyle, but this became more difficult in junior high school due to the requirement for school uniforms and regulations on hairstyle. This difficulty in turn led to interpersonal problems that ultimately resulted in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and depression, such as headache and sleep dysfunction. People with developmental prosopagnosia are generally prone to having depressed and anxious feelings. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of anxiety disorder or depression related to developmental prosopagnosia. This comorbidity may be relatively common, especially in ethnically homogeneous countries with strict school regulations on personal appearance such as Japan.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2023/3.1290 View / Download Pdf
Vol 7-3 Review Article

Remote Warfare with Intimate Consequences: Psychological Stress in Service Member and Veteran Remotely-Piloted Aircraft (RPA) Personnel

Seth Davin Norrholm1,2*, Jessica L. Maples-Keller3, Barbara O. Rothbaum3, Chad C. Tossell2

1Neuroscience Center for Anxiety, Stress, and Trauma, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA

2Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA

3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

The use of remote piloted aircraft (RPAs) has been a part of military operations for decades and this type of service can present its own unique constellation of combat experiences and psychological consequences. The RPA crewmember experience has typically involved surveillance, targeting, striking, and after-battle assessments of individuals of interest to a host country or agency from a distance that can span several thousand miles. These operators are engaged in physically remote activities that carry a significant degree of intimacy due to the live, high-resolution, high-fidelity images and sounds that are available to the combatants in real-time. The potential psychological consequences of this type of military occupational specialty can include the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as moral injury, mental exhaustion or burnout, and disturbed sleep. The following narrative review examines the current state of RPA warfare from a psychological trauma perspective with an emphasis on the evolution of the inherent technology, the operator force, the psychological experiences and consequences of this type of service, and potential preventative interventions for servicemembers. A key objective of this narrative review is to integrate the available peer-reviewed empirical data, experiential military perspectives and analyses, clinician observations from this unique population, and exemplar reports from those with lived experience on an RPA crew regarding psychological consequences of this military occupational specialty.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2023/3.1289 View / Download Pdf