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Mothers’ Global Psychological Health and Sex-specific Expression in Newborns

Stefanie R. Pilkay1*, Terri Combs-Orme2, Frances Tylavsky3, Nicole Bush4, Alicia K. Smith5

1Falk College, School of Social Work, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York

2College of Social Work, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee

3Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennesse Health and Science Center, e, Memphis, Tennessee

4Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California

5Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Psychiatry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia


Summary: The prenatal environment can influence gene expression involved in the development, possibly contributing to generational patterns of psychological health. Moreover, sex-specific developmental differences in-utero may result in gene expression differences associated with the prenatal environment. However, it is not clear if maternal overall psychological symptoms will associate with newborn’s gene expression, or if such patterns are consistent between sexes. This study explored the relationships between maternal psychological health (PsyH) and newborn’s gene expression patterns. We assessed PsyH with the Brief Symptom Inventory and newborn gene expression in umbilical cord blood. We conducted combined and sex-stratified analyses of genes expressed in umbilical cord blood.

Findings: PsyH associated with differential expression of 157 genes in males. The 157 differentially expressed genes are more likely to function in metabolic processes. There were no significant differences in gene expression in females.

Application: The sex-specific nature of these findings suggests males may be more vulnerable than females to mothers’ psychological functioning during pregnancy. It is possible that the male-specific results are due in part to female newborns developing under different neuroendocrine conditions. Future research examining prenatal exposures should consider sex differences.


Prenatal development is sensitive to maternal stress which can have lasting effects on neonate health1,2. Furthermore, males and females have shown differences in prenatal stress programming that could represent different health and developmental risks according to neonate sex3. Maternal psychological health is one maternal stress factor linked to prenatal development4 in a sex-specific manner5 that may represent sex-specific biological embedding. Maternal psychological health has been measured in different ways showing varying associations with neonate health. For example, mothers with greater affect intensity showed greater fetal motor activity during pregnancy compared to mothers with more stable affect6. Moreover, depression or anxiety during pregnancy associated with more difficult neonate temperaments7. The links between maternal psychological health and neonate health can best be explained by the process of experience influencing developmental processes, termed “biological embedding”8.

Pregnancy can be stressful for the mother9 and the additional burden of psychological symptoms can affect the fetus’ developing brain. Previous findings showed mother and newborn hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning was linked to cortisol activity and suggested the HPA axis had been sensitized to stress and stimulation in neonates10 through the process of fetal programming11. Chronic stress activation can influence a sensitized HPA axis which can affect the immune system and metabolism12. These physiological adaptations increase a child’s vulnerability to environmental insults during neurodevelopment. Collectively the research suggests that women who suffer psychological health symptoms are at increased risk to have children with a greater vulnerability to stress.

Emerging evidence suggests that the mothers’ psychological health during pregnancy, can impose fetal stress that influences gene expression and fetal development13-15. Moreover, there are developmental differences between male and female embryos resulting in varying sensitivities to the prenatal environment. For example, male fetuses undergo an epigenetic process during pregnancy to masculinize the brain16. The potential for sex-specific variation in sensitivity to the prenatal environment underscores the need to examine sex-specific effects within the context of maternal psychological health. Sex-specific differences in gene expression may help explain sex-specific risk and resilience within childhood psychopathology17 as well as affective disorders found in adulthood, i.e. anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder18.

This study aimed to determine if: 1) maternal psychological health during pregnancy will associate with gene expression in newborns, and 2) the association between maternal psychological health and newborn gene expression is sex-specific.

Subjects are primarily African American mothers (African American 62% vs. Caucasian 38%) of similar age (25.04 + 5.15 vs. 28.56 + 4.61) and the newborns are comparably distributed between sexes (male [n = 61, 55%], female [n = 50, 45%]). The majority of the mothers reported some degree of PsyH symptoms (M = 50.33, SD = 7.79) that did not differ according to newborn sex (p = .18) (see Figures 1 and 2).

Jmhc-20-1216-Fig1

Figure 1: Histogram of Maternal Psychological Health Distribution in Full Neonate Cohort. PsyH is relatively normally distributed with a score range of 33-72 (n = 111, M = 50.33, SD = 7.8, skew = .06, kurtosis = -.32, SE = .76).

Jmhc-20-1216-Fig2

Figure 2: Maternal Psychological Health Distribution by Neonate Sex. Male and female neonates show similar distributions of maternal psychological health symptoms.

PsyH did not associate with newborn gene expression in the full newborn cohort while controlling for sex, race and cell composition. However, gene expression did associate with newborn sex for 17 genes, although all were located on the sex chromosomes. Plots of the effect sizes and t-statistics for the gene expression probes according to newborn sex suggests male and female newborns responded differently to PsyH (see Figure 3). Therefore, we conducted a sex-stratified analysis to investigate possible gene expression associations with PsyH unique to male or female newborns.

Jmhc-20-1216-Fig3

Figure 3: Plots by Newborn Sex of Association Indicators for Psychological Health. a: t-statistics show an inverse association between males and females. b: The beta values show an inverse association for gene expression and psychological health according to newborn sex.

Males exhibited significant gene expression of 157 genes related to increases in PsyH scores during pregnancy (Supplemental Table 1). The 157 genes showed positive (38%) and negative (62%) associations, as modeled in a volcano plot (Figure 4), suggesting a complex interaction with the prenatal environment. These genes were enriched for a variety of metabolic functions (Table 1). For example, expression of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 2 (EIF4EBP2), a gene represented among multiple enriched biological processes is lower in males whose mothers have higher levels of PsyH symptoms (Figure 5). Female newborns showed no gene expression associations with PsyH after controlling for covariates and adjusting for multiple comparisons (FDR > .05).

Table 1. Table 1: Enrichment of Biological Processes Among Genes whose Expression associates with maternal PsyH in males.

Path Identifier

Description

# Genes

Bayes Factor

p-value

GO:0044237 

cellular metabolism

46

7

.003

GO:0008152 

metabolism

48

7

.003

GO:0043170 

macromolecule metabolism

22

6

.005

GO:0044238

primary metabolism

44

6

.007

*Adjusted p-value for multiple comparison control.

Jmhc-20-1216-Fig4

Figure 4: Volcano plot comparison of PsyH and gene expression association values by newborn sex. A: Males show more negative gene expression associations with maternal psychological health. B: Females show no gene expression associations with maternal psychological health.

Jmhc-20-1216-Fig5

Figure 5: Maternal PsyH and EIF4EBP2 Expression in Male Newborns. EIF4EBP2 gene (ILMN_1728083) is shared among the metabolic pathways, is involved in inhibiting translation, and shows greater expression in males neonates with greater PsyH symptoms in moms. Analyses controlled for child race, cell composition, and multiple comparisons.

Our findings suggest that maternal psychological health can influence the prenatal environment with gene expression associations unique to male newborns. These results suggest males may be more sensitive to maternal psychological health during pregnancy compared to females. Male newborns showed differential expression of 157 genes associated with greater detrimental maternal psychological health, and these genes were enriched for fundamental processes of metabolism. Moreover, a PubMed search of the 157 genes identified EIF4EBP2 as a gene of particular interest. EIF4EBP2 is involved in inhibiting translation initiation, which can affect the amount of protein produced.

Interestingly, EIF4EBP2 has been implicated in the mechanisms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in rodent models with increased ASD behaviors in mice with the gene knocked out19. Moreover, newborn expression of EIF4EBP2 has been shown to associate with maternal inflammatory responses during pregnancy20 that have been linked to maternal psychological health21. Although investigations are ongoing, EIF4EBP2 clearly plays an important role in health and the transmission of health from mother to child. The unique association for male newborns in relation to maternal psychological health, therefore, could be an indication of a sex-specific neonatal developmental response to the prenatal environment. At a minimum, our findings support previous research proposing mothers’ psychological health is associated with gene expression in male newborns that could predispose risk for or resilience to metabolic disorders22,23, enduring cognitive deficits14,15, and increased stress sensitivity5.

Maternal psychological health functioning during pregnancy should be investigated further. It is possible that some psychological health symptoms exert greater influence than others, or associate with male and female newborns differently. Future research would benefit from the inclusion of different psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety, somatization, or combinations thereof to provide an examination of differences among symptom types. Furthermore, psychological health can influence other things such as nutrition, income, and social support which could each affect the prenatal environment.

Continuing exploration into gene expression patterns associated with prenatal variables has the potential to inform professionals seeking to foster resilience in vulnerable populations through innovative approaches to reduce risk. For example, prenatal screenings could include assessment for variables that increase the risk for adverse behavioural outcomes in offspring. Therefore, identified environmental interventions for the pregnant mother such as diet and stress reduction could be applied to foster resilience in the fetus, and later the newborn. There are many avenues to promote good psychological health through stress reduction techniques like mindfulness24, breathing exercises25, physical exercise26, and social connectedness27 to name a few. Moreover, behaviors like healthy sleep patterns28 and playing a musical instrument29 have been shown to promote positive emotions and emotion regulation that promote good maternal psychological health.

These study findings, in conjunction with previous findings5,14,15, suggest prenatal exposure to maternal psychological illness is one link for intergenerational patterns of risk, and risks may be sex-specific. Future research may deepen our understanding of mechanisms involved in these intergenerational patterns, and thereby provide new opportunities to intervene for improved quality of life. For example, this avenue of research could bolster arguments for the ongoing need for universal prenatal care, proper affordable nutrition, and other services to support mothers and families.

There are some limitations to this study. The sample is from one urban population in west Tennessee and is not generalizable to other populations. However, our replication of an association between maternal psychological health and male newborn gene expression provides additional context with previous findings5,15,15. The sample size is modest for transcriptome-wide investigations, but the transcriptome-wide analysis is an excellent tool to discover unknown or unsuspected relationships. However, analysis of the whole transcriptome significantly increases the number of conducted tests. To account for those tests, and the decreased probability of committing type I errors, we controlled for multiple comparisons with the False Discovery Rate and calculated bootstrap 95% confidence intervals to show the accuracy of estimated relationships. Lastly, we investigated these relationships in umbilical cord blood, and there may be relationships in other tissues (i.e., placenta).

The findings from our study, in conjunction with previous research30,31, suggest that social problems such as stress and psychological illness have potential to exert influence on human development across generations. Therefore, the design of interventions will benefit from biopsychosocial research, like gene expression studies, that will help illuminate pathways to risk and resilience. Knowledge like this could one day be used in screening measures to aid intervention and prevention strategies and in the design and targeting of services to those who are most in need.

The data for this study is from the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood investigation (CANDLE), and the University of Tennessee Health Science Center Institutional Review Board approved all measures and procedures. This study was carried out in accordance with the Belmont Report ethical principles and guidelines for human subjects research. The sample (111 mother/infant pairs) consists of healthy mothers aged 16-40 years solicited in prenatal settings in Shelby County, Tennessee. Announcements and brochures containing information about the study were provided to all local gynecology clinics. Interested women contacted study personnel by telephone and were then screened for eligibility. Women meeting eligibility criteria were asked to visit one of two research clinics utilized for the study. Forty percent of interested women met eligibility criteria and were invited to participate. All participants signed informed consent documents, and participants under the age of eighteen years provided a parent signed informed consent. The participants provided umbilical cord blood samples immediately after birth for biological measures including gene expression. Umbilical cord blood has been used to measure newborn gene expression in multiple studies32-35.

Mothers’ psychological health (PsyH) status variable was created using the global severity index (GSI) summary score from the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) (Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1983). The Brief Symptom Inventory is a shortened version of the SCL-90 psychological health assessment and has been found to be sensitive to psychopathology and psychological distress36. The global severity index score has been investigated and found to be a more accurate assessment of overall psychological health functioning than the positive symptom total score in the BSI measure37.

Gene expression is assessed by measuring the RNA transcript levels38. The Illumina Human WG-6 expression array was used to measure RNA transcription. Samples with less than 10% of the gene probes detected were eliminated, as well as probes with less than 10% of the samples detected within each dataset. No sample was lost based on these QC criteria. We performed quantile normalization, scaled the data, and performed a log2 transformation. Prior to analysis, updated annotation files for the Illumina Human WG-6 array were consulted for accurate gene expression measurement information39. A total of 10,821 expressed genes passed QC in these umbilical cord blood samples.

Descriptive statistics were calculated to determine sample characteristics. We examined the association between PsyH and newborn transcriptome-wide gene expression as measured with the Illumina HumanWG-6 BeadChip. We performed multiple regression to conduct the newborn gene expression analyses and controlled for child sex, child race, and cell composition. Cell composition was estimated for each sample as previously described40. We statistically analyzed the cohort first and then conducted sex-stratified analyses controlling for child race and cell composition. Gene ontology analysis was performed on genes identified as significant using GATHER41. Bootstrap confidence intervals were generated to address potential non-normality of the data. As is standard in genetics research, we implemented the False Discovery Rate control for multiple comparisons in all gene expression analyses42.

Funding and support was provided by The Urban Child Institute and the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, with other support from the US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, grants HD055462 and HD060713.

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Supplemental Table.

Genes differentially expressed in male newborns according to maternal PsyH

Probe ID

Gene

Beta Coefficient

Bootstrap

95% CI

FDR adjusted

p-value

 

Probe ID

Gene

Beta Coefficient

Bootstrap

95% CI

FDR adjusted

p-value

ILMN_2185264

ZNF461

-0.078886042

-.119, -.038

0.039400571

 

ILMN_2126802

RPS27L

-0.054882677

-.084, -.029

0.044812759

ILMN_1762573

LOC401630

-0.069570218

-.108, -.035

0.044812759

 

ILMN_2058841

LILRA6

-0.054787834

-.083, -.025

0.043364783

ILMN_2096442

LOC260339

-0.065750621

-.097, -.032

0.039400571

 

ILMN_2380101

PHACTR4

-0.053983378

-.070, -.030

0.039400571

ILMN_1746917

LOC729843

-0.064957403

-.084, -.038

0.045569436

 

ILMN_2190850

PPID

-0.053745272

-.086, -.025

0.047760063

ILMN_2175737

ZNF826

-0.064650594

-.099, -.023

0.048165878

 

ILMN_2179579

SNHG3

-0.053519627

-.085, -.024

0.049176039

ILMN_2198823

H6PD

-0.063303215

-.098, -.031

0.047760063

 

ILMN_2106002

ACBD7

-0.052888042

-.085, -.027

0.049176039

ILMN_2404320

SNTN

-0.06312612

-.095, -.033

0.043364783

 

ILMN_2395496

KLK7

-0.052570497

-.087, -.020

0.048165878

ILMN_1698766

PYCARD

-0.063042137

-.082, -.041

0.039400571

 

ILMN_2115011

FGD2

-0.052162454

-.082, -.024

0.049176039

ILMN_2141523

MRPL44

-0.06294615

-.097, -.029

0.045569436

 

ILMN_2084489

ZNF595

-0.051316734

-.082, -.019

0.048165878

ILMN_2402499

SC4MOL

-0.06135017

-.089, -.035

0.043364783

 

ILMN_2215965

CYP2B6

-0.050994618

-.074, -.024

0.039400571

ILMN_2203876

CCDC68

-0.060809072

-.094, -.027

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1712357

HNRPK

-0.050745076

-.074, -.025

0.045569436

ILMN_1876838

 

-0.060756232

-.088, -.039

0.039400571

 

ILMN_1757914

C19orf56

-0.050123353

-.072, -.027

0.049176039

ILMN_1715635

ATP6V0E1

-0.060589336

-.095, -.033

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1741491

ZNHIT1

-0.049742067

-.083, -.026

0.048871645

ILMN_2357377

TERF1

-0.059190782

-.091, -.027

0.045569436

 

ILMN_2178186

PIGW

-0.04887585

-.076, -.022

0.047760063

ILMN_2208491

RPLP0P2

-0.058546721

-.089, -.036

0.039400571

 

ILMN_2127416

GSR

-0.047914114

-.073, -.028

0.047760063

ILMN_2066249

RPP30

-0.058426512

-.095, -.031

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1671494

USP5

-0.047160548

-.068, -.032

0.039400571

ILMN_2217955

TTC21B

-0.058323114

-.091, -.029

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1689710

C16orf50

-0.047007495

-.069, -.026

0.039400571

ILMN_2281089

STEAP3

-0.057859572

-.092, -.025

0.047760063

 

ILMN_2102580

UTP20

-0.046813344

-.071, -.021

0.045569436

ILMN_1679809

GSTP1

-0.057681223

-.088, -.031

0.044812759

 

ILMN_2409720

SLA2

-0.04625212

-.070, -.018

0.047760063

ILMN_1651358

HBE1

-0.056699663

-.081, -.020

0.047760063

 

ILMN_2245686

GYG2

-0.045899964

-.073, -.018

0.049176039

ILMN_2346562

ZNF273

-0.056319333

-.090, -.029

0.048165878

 

ILMN_1765621

HDGF

-0.045702693

-.068, -.020

0.047760063

ILMN_2382657

ARHGAP9

-0.056298906

-.086, -.027

0.047760063

 

ILMN_1917044

 

-0.045493069

-.072, -.030

0.047760063

ILMN_2049228

NUDT4P1

-0.055937291

-.086, -.028

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1756942

SP3

-0.044384942

-.056, -.025

0.039400571

ILMN_2180997

GTF2IRD2B

-0.055805828

-.088, -.031

0.048165878

 

ILMN_2151168

SLC30A6

-0.043380056

-.065, -.019

0.045569436

ILMN_1728083

EIF4EBP2

-0.054931752

-.080, -.032

 

0.048165878

 

ILMN_2378670

SNX15

-0.043006845

-.067, -.016

0.047760063

ILMN_2070477

TAF8

-0.042691067

-.064, -.020

0.043364783

 

ILMN_2137464

DVL3

-0.035973219

-.055, -.017

0.047760063

ILMN_1715698

MGC71993

-0.042485825

-.064, -.020

0.047760063

 

ILMN_2145143

FKBP9

-0.035961146

-.052, -.012

0.045569436

ILMN_2292696

COX15

-0.041623601

-.062, -.028

0.039400571

 

ILMN_2331658

C3orf17

-0.03585831

-.054, -.017

0.048165878

ILMN_1742400

CEP350

-0.040846365

-.054, -.022

0.039400571

 

ILMN_1794522

EIF5A

-0.035854562

-.061, -.019

0.048165878

ILMN_2280441

PACRG

-0.040702491

-.059, -.017

0.043364783

 

ILMN_2141030

LOC641522

-0.035638955

-.054, -.014

0.047760063

ILMN_2042941

TMEM159

-0.040579203

-.059, -.019

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1797964

ARL6IP6

-0.024273555

-.030, -.004

0.049176039

ILMN_1758100

GALR3

-0.040217106

-.060, -.019

0.043364783

 

ILMN_1773850

FXC1

-0.022685488

-.035, -.011

0.045569436

ILMN_1739792

RHOG

-0.040075792

-.061, -.018

0.047760063

 

ILMN_1682736

LOC643452

0.01550105

.004, .024

0.049177556

ILMN_2410362

ACBD5

-0.039916622

-.059, -.018

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1675852

LOC650518

0.016336257

.008, .026

0.04559356

ILMN_2055271

A1BG

-0.039415396

-.056, -.017

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1721713

EXOSC9

0.016725851

.006, .025

0.04681483

ILMN_2358652

NXF1

-0.039356826

-.062, -.019

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1659523

USP39

0.018544909

.003, .024

0.048165878

ILMN_2374383

TSPAN17

-0.038850669

-.059, -.021

0.048165878

 

ILMN_1776347

TCP1

0.018823076

.009, .026

0.048165878

ILMN_2162972

LYZ

-0.03863507

-.055, -.016

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1767992

SLC12A6

0.019306512

.009, .029

0.039400571

ILMN_1651506

NCOA6IP

-0.038395972

-.049, -.019

0.039400571

 

ILMN_1704206

NPSR1

0.019418619

.0003, .024

0.043364783

ILMN_1682938

ARF3

-0.038045144

-.060, -.014

0.048165878

 

ILMN_2192683

DHX37

0.020070541

.007, .026

0.047760063

ILMN_2277252

PPFIBP1

-0.038031935

-.055, -.017

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1662896

BRWD2

0.0209141

.009, .030

0.045569436

ILMN_2178201

ZNF43

-0.037734631

-.055, -.018

0.044812759

 

ILMN_1776147

C21orf59

0.021299857

.008, .031

0.048165878

ILMN_2255142

TRIM34

-0.037587268

-.057, -.013

0.047760063

 

ILMN_1727761

GMEB1

0.021302431

.006, .026

0.047760063

ILMN_2115974

GSDM1

-0.037211655

-.055, -.014

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1693421

RPN2

0.022035022

.010, .032

0.047760063

ILMN_1660869

LOC643438

-0.037161222

-.056, -.020

0.047760063

 

ILMN_1725169

INTS12

0.022214042

.005, .034

0.045569436

ILMN_1750805

ARHGAP30

-0.036936857

-.053, -.023

0.048165878

 

ILMN_1737413

MSH2

0.023029546

.005, .030

0.047760063

ILMN_2261600

FCGR1B

-0.036794728

-.046, -.017

0.039400571

 

ILMN_1916094

 

0.023133907

.009, .035

0.047760063

ILMN_1684434

SLC17A5

-0.036576672

-.057, -.014

0.049176039

 

ILMN_1677376

CHD7

0.023791824

.012, .037

0.048165878

ILMN_2190851

PPID

-0.036289407

-.052, -.014

0.047760063

 

ILMN_1774974

CLUAP1

0.023952943

.011, .030

0.039400571

ILMN_2196232

C1orf210

-0.036197628

-.052, -.016

0.043364783

 

ILMN_1748018

GORASP2

0.02441163

.010, .032

0.047760063

ILMN_2359096

SS18

-0.034992783

-.053, -.015

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1801833

ARHGAP24

0.024525524

.015, .038

0.039400571

ILMN_2252136

YWHAE

-0.034150242

-.060, -.021

0.048165878

 

ILMN_1771801

SIRPG

0.024716906

.012, .036

0.048165878

ILMN_2406532

F11R

-0.033700911

-.051, -.011

0.047760063

 

ILMN_1684724

CR2

0.024839519

.012, .037

0.043364783

ILMN_2263236

HFE

-0.033652648

-.053, -.014

0.047760063

 

ILMN_2136133

PABPC1

0.024864516

.010, .033

0.045569436

ILMN_2299795

CPM

-0.032837325

-.045, -.010

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1720270

CDR2

0.025226775

.006, .032

0.043364783

ILMN_1728957

ANKRD5

-0.032553034

-.049, -.012

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1789653

PBLD

0.025480103

.010, .038

0.049176039

ILMN_1775919

C6orf79

-0.031994525

-.049, -.013

0.048165878

 

ILMN_2048822

NUDCD2

0.025886067

.013, .033

0.039400571

ILMN_2323302

SON

-0.031503972

-.051, -.018

0.047760063

 

ILMN_1655625

GPATCH1

0.026500147

.007, .041

0.043364783

ILMN_1810488

NFYC

-0.030915679

-.044, -.012

0.043364783

 

ILMN_1725175

FOSL2

0.02654905

.010, .039

0.045569436

ILMN_1712400

SERPINB6

-0.030091528

-.042, -.017

0.039400571

 

ILMN_1749586

LOC642914

0.026746809

.016, .046

0.047760063

ILMN_1770673

AKNA

-0.029749607

-.043, -.009

0.048871645

 

ILMN_1717852

USH1G

0.026754287

.016, .039

0.043364783

ILMN_2144116

CPSF2

-0.02838741

-.040, -.012

0.047760063

 

ILMN_2156953

ZFAND6

0.026820464

.015, .036

0.047760063

ILMN_1730879

CBY1

-0.027131446

-.039, -.014

0.048871645

 

ILMN_2186482

TMED7

0.026990153

.015, .043

0.047760063

ILMN_1744113

TNFAIP8L2

-0.026052743

-.034, -.008

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1672446

RPL11

0.027072111

.008, .040

0.043364783

ILMN_2122022

ZNF639

-0.024844573

-.038, -.010

0.048165878

 

ILMN_1704956

SMTNL1

0.027710644

.007, .039

0.039400571

ILMN_1807649

SPOPL

-0.024839798

-.029, -.007

0.048165878

 

ILMN_1818935

 

0.028159219

.016, .044

0.047760063

ILMN_1692535

DPP4

0.028160224

.012, .036

0.049176039

 

ILMN_2130525

TSPAN13

0.031815095

.015, .043

0.047760063

ILMN_2114876

RPL11

0.028446346

.009, .043

0.04180435

 

ILMN_2381064

TPD52

0.032692639

.017, .050

0.047760063

ILMN_1764323

LOC124512

0.028469498

.016, .040

0.039400571

 

ILMN_1652085

MPHOSPH10

0.033498448

.017, .048

0.043364783

ILMN_2410771

KEAP1

0.028499536

.008, .033

0.039400571

 

ILMN_1657873

XPO4

0.034105854

.017, .054

0.048871645

ILMN_1853160

 

0.029498432

.017, .044

0.047760063

 

ILMN_2200636

KIAA1267

0.035372831

.017, .048

0.049176039

ILMN_1653129

CSTF2

0.030208328

.013, .039

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1909223

 

0.035757529

.017, .050

0.045569436

ILMN_1730791

LOC646783

0.030379729

.015, .043

0.043364783

 

ILMN_2103774

PIP5KL1

0.036060422

.014, .047

0.048871645

ILMN_2151048

STAG1

0.030436997

.019, .041

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1837286

 

0.038877769

.019, .055

0.045569436

ILMN_1880113

 

0.030540174

.013, .045

0.045569436

 

ILMN_1819251

 

0.039768665

.019, .053

0.039400571

ILMN_1879078

 

0.031327435

.013, .047

0.047760063

 

ILMN_2379788

HIF1A

0.041570256

.028, .062

0.045569436

ILMN_1888252

 

0.031513924

.015, .048

0.043364783

 

ILMN_1798874

TMEM85

0.042248923

.018, .057

0.044812759

ILMN_1662845

NBPF11

0.031580898

.018, .049

0.043364783

 

ILMN_2379762

NPM1

0.055644091

.027, .087

0.048165878

ILMN_1748141

AMOTL1

0.031599523

.015, .048

0.047760063

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Article Info

  • Journal of Mental Health & Clinical Psychology
  • Article Type : Original Research Article
  • View/Download pdf

Article Notes

  • Published on: October 26, 2020

Keywords

  • Psychological Health

  • Child Abuse
  • Gene Expression
  • Intergenerational

*Correspondence:

Dr. Stefanie Pilkay, PhD
Assistant Professor, Syracuse University, Falk College School of Social Work, 278 While Hall, Syracuse, New York 13204; Telephone No: 865-454-1112
Email: srpilkay@syr.edu.