Vol 6-1 Research Article

Gender Differences in the Contribution of Anger Components to Depressive Symptomatology

Objective: The present study examined the association of anxiety- and anger-related components to depressive symptomatology for men and women.

Methods: The study relied on a cross-sectional design. of 2,054 Japanese workers affiliated with two occupational settings, complete responses on measures for depression, anxiety, and anger, were obtained from 1,862 workers (90.7%: 1,521 men, 341 women). A stepwise regression analysis was executed by gender and age group.

Results: Stepwise regression analysis revealed that main components were almost the same for both genders, i.e., trait anxiety, state anger and anger suppression. However, the explaining variances of anger were much larger for men, whereas those of state anxiety were larger for women. Anger expression outward was selected for men, but not for women.

Conclusions: Depressive symptomatology was largely explained by trait anxiety, state anger, and anger expression style. For men, state anger and either expression of feelings of anger inward or outward were exacerbating their depression as compared to women. This could explain in part the gender differences in depression.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2022/1.1246 View / Download Pdf
Vol 6-1 Original Research Article

Victims of Crime Recovery Program Decreases Risk for New Mental

Mental illness is pervasive among trauma populations and is linked to worse outcomes and recidivism. The Victims of Crime Advocacy and Recovery Program (VOCARP) prospectively provides patient services such as educational materials, compensation, advocacy and mental health care to patients with physical injuries. The purpose was to assess for relationship between resource use and development of mental illness after injury. Two control groups: a random selection of patients who did not use VOCARP (n=212) and 201 patients with non-violent trauma were obtained. Over 22 months 1,019 patients utilized VOCARP. Of all 1,432 patients, 43% had preexisting mental illness, and 17% had a new or worsening mental illness after injury. Patients with VOCARP use had more preexisting mental illness (47% vs. 35%, p<0.01), particularly depression and stress disorders. Conversely, VOCARP use was associated with lower rates of mental illness post-injury (15% vs. 22%). Following injury, VOCARP users had more stress disorders (57% vs. 37%), but less depression (25% vs. 41%) and suicidal ideation (7% vs. 24%), all p<0.05. 113 patients (11% of 1,019) used mental health services, which was associated with lower recidivism for new violent injury (4.4% vs. 11.7%, p=0.016). On regression analysis, unemployment (OR: 0.61, p=0.012) and use of VOCARP services (OR: 0.54, p=0.008) were predictive of decreased risk for new mental illness. Mental illness is pervasive among patients with injuries resulting from violence. VOCARP programming appears beneficial for limiting risk of new mental illness after injury.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2022/1.1241 View / Download Pdf