Vol 2-1 Mini Review

Preschool children facing mass trauma: Disasters, war and terrorism

Leo Wolmer1,2*, Daniel Hamiel1,3, Lee Pardo-Aviv1, and Nathaniel Laor1,4,5

1 Donald J. Cohen & Irving B. Harris Resilience Center, Association for Children at Risk, Israel

2 Baruch Ivcher School of Psychology, Herzlyia Interdisciplinary Center, Israel

3 Tel-Aviv-Brüll Community Mental Health Center, Clalit Health Services

4 Departments of Psychiatry and Medical Education, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel

5 Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT

Preschool children are exposed to an increasingly wide variety of disasters and terrorist incidents that may have severe effects on their mental health and development. The goal of this paper is to review the research literature regarding the needs of preschoolers in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding: a) the consequences of such events for young children and the main moderating variables influencing the event-consequence association. b) the existing methods for assessment, prevention and intervention to provide recommendations and point out required research and development. We differentiate between screening tools that provide initial evaluation and assessment tools for diagnosing preschooler children's’ pathology and review possible interventions that address the preschool child's needs before, during and after the incident itself. We discuss the challenges in performing research following disaster and terrorism and the lack of dissemination and research of prevention programs and mass interventions for preschoolers. Finally, we emphasize the need for research and intervention programs aimed at dealing with the impact of terrorism and armed conflict on children's worldview.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1111 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-1 Opinion Article

Is Bisphenol A (BPA) a Threat to Children's Behavior?

Vicente Mustieles1, Carmen Messerlian2, Iris Reina1, Andrea Rodríguez-Carrillo1, Nicolás Olea1, and Mariana F. Fernández1*

*1University of Granada, Center for Biomedical Research (CIBM); Biosanitary Research Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Spain; Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain.

2Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

In 2015 we reviewed the state of knowledge regarding the potential impact of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on child neurobehavior. At that time, we expressed concern about the effects of BPA on children’s behavior, especially when exposure takes place in utero. Since then, the number of human studies addressing the BPA-neurobehavior hypothesis has doubled, most of them reinforcing previous prenatal associations and frequently showing differences between boys and girls. An increasing number of studies have also shown an association between postnatal BPA exposure and diverse neurobehavioral impairments, including attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It may never be possible to establish a causal link between this specific endocrine disruptor and a particular neurobehavioral endpoint; however, research data on the relationship between human BPA exposure and children’s behavior has revealed a relatively consistent pattern that cannot be ignored. The mounting experimental and epidemiologic evidence on neurobehavioral effects support more than ever the need to apply the precautionary principle during development, especially in relation to pregnant women and children. It seems that the time to act has arrived.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1115 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-1 Commentary

Commentary: Mental Health Act reform must include carers

Nuwan Dissanayaka1*

*1Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundations Trust, Leeds LS15 8ZB, UK.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1119 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-1 Letter to the Editor

Feasibility of a Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Impact of African Dance on Cognitive Function and Risk of Dementia: the REACT! Study

M. Kathryn Jedrziewski1,2,3*, Dara Meekins1, Samuel A. Gorka1, Mariegold E. Wollam5, Mihloti Williams4,5, George A. Grove5, Charles Lwanga4,5, Chelsea M. Stillman4,6, and Kirk I. Erickson4,5

1The Institute on Aging, Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

2Alzheimer’s Disease Core Center, Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

3Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

4Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh

5Department of Psychology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh

6Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1116 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-1 Original Article

Sexual risks, Substance abuse and Protective factors among, Kampala Street and slum children

Rogers Kasirye1*, Rogers Mutaawe2*

1Executive Director, Uganda Youth Development Link, Kampala Uganda

2Senior Programme Manager, Uganda Youth Development Link, Kampala Uganda

The goal of this descriptive study was to examine the relationship between sexual risky behaviors and substance abuse among street and slum youth of Kampala. The study was conducted among youths seeking services for the first time from Drop In center facilities run by Uganda Youth Development Link, located in Kampala City. While several studies have examined risks for substance abuse and sexual risky behaviors among children and adolescents in Uganda, none have identified protective factors among this sub population including street children in Kampala. This study conducted baseline interviews of street children enrolling in a youth intervention program in Kampala City, Uganda. A total of 203 youth between the ages of 14 and 24 were interviewed about their consumption of alcohol, tobacco and other forms of drug use; and sexual risky behaviors. The study results Preliminary results reveal high prevalence of alcohol and other substance use coupled with early sexual risk involvement (e.g. sex without condoms).

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1107 View / Download Pdf