M. Kathryn Jedrziewski1,2,3*, Dara Meekins1, Samuel A. Gorka1, Mariegold E. Wollam5, Mihloti Williams4,5, George A. Grove5, Charles Lwanga4,5, Chelsea M. Stillman4,6, and Kirk I. Erickson4,5

1The Institute on Aging, Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

2Alzheimer’s Disease Core Center, Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

3Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

4Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh

5Department of Psychology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh

6Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1116 View / Download Pdf
Vicente Mustieles1, Carmen Messerlian2, Iris Reina1, Andrea Rodríguez-Carrillo1, Nicolás Olea1, and Mariana F. Fernández1*

*1University of Granada, Center for Biomedical Research (CIBM); Biosanitary Research Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Spain; Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain.

2Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

In 2015 we reviewed the state of knowledge regarding the potential impact of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on child neurobehavior. At that time, we expressed concern about the effects of BPA on children’s behavior, especially when exposure takes place in utero. Since then, the number of human studies addressing the BPA-neurobehavior hypothesis has doubled, most of them reinforcing previous prenatal associations and frequently showing differences between boys and girls. An increasing number of studies have also shown an association between postnatal BPA exposure and diverse neurobehavioral impairments, including attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It may never be possible to establish a causal link between this specific endocrine disruptor and a particular neurobehavioral endpoint; however, research data on the relationship between human BPA exposure and children’s behavior has revealed a relatively consistent pattern that cannot be ignored. The mounting experimental and epidemiologic evidence on neurobehavioral effects support more than ever the need to apply the precautionary principle during development, especially in relation to pregnant women and children. It seems that the time to act has arrived.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1115 View / Download Pdf
Nuwan Dissanayaka1*

*1Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundations Trust, Leeds LS15 8ZB, UK.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1119 View / Download Pdf
Leo Wolmer1,2*, Daniel Hamiel1,3, Lee Pardo-Aviv1, and Nathaniel Laor1,4,5

1 Donald J. Cohen & Irving B. Harris Resilience Center, Association for Children at Risk, Israel

2 Baruch Ivcher School of Psychology, Herzlyia Interdisciplinary Center, Israel

3 Tel-Aviv-Brüll Community Mental Health Center, Clalit Health Services

4 Departments of Psychiatry and Medical Education, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel

5 Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT

Preschool children are exposed to an increasingly wide variety of disasters and terrorist incidents that may have severe effects on their mental health and development. The goal of this paper is to review the research literature regarding the needs of preschoolers in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding: a) the consequences of such events for young children and the main moderating variables influencing the event-consequence association. b) the existing methods for assessment, prevention and intervention to provide recommendations and point out required research and development. We differentiate between screening tools that provide initial evaluation and assessment tools for diagnosing preschooler children's’ pathology and review possible interventions that address the preschool child's needs before, during and after the incident itself. We discuss the challenges in performing research following disaster and terrorism and the lack of dissemination and research of prevention programs and mass interventions for preschoolers. Finally, we emphasize the need for research and intervention programs aimed at dealing with the impact of terrorism and armed conflict on children's worldview.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1111 View / Download Pdf

Karen L. Houseknecht1,2*, C.C. Bouchard1, C.A Black2

1College of Osteopathic Medicine, University of New England, 11 Hills Beach Road, Biddeford, ME 04005, USA
2College of Pharmacy, University of New England, 716 Stevens Avenue, Portland, Maine 04013, USA

Mood spectrum disorders and medications used to treat these disorders, such as atypical antipsychotic drugs (AA), are associated with metabolic and endocrine side effects including obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and increased risk of fractures. Antidepressant medications, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), have also been reported to increase fracture risk in some patients. The pharmacology underlying the increased risk of fractures is currently unknown. Possible mechanisms include alternations in dopaminergic and/or serotonergic signaling pathways. As these medications distribute to the bone marrow as well as to the brain, it is possible that drug-induced fractures are due to both centrally mediated effects as well as direct effects on bone turnover. Given the growing patient population that is prescribed these medications for both on- and off-label indications, understanding the level of risk and the mechanisms underlying drug-induced fractures is important for informing both prescribing and patient monitoring practices.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1106 View / Download Pdf

Pamela Rosenthal Rollins*

University of Texas at Dallas, Callier Center for Communication Disorders, 1966 Inwood Road, Dallas, USA

Early identification and intervention that focus on the core social deficits of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are imperative for these children to be able to reach their optimal potential. This report examines the Pathways Early Autism Intervention (Pathways), a translational parent-mediated, naturalistic developmental behavioral intervention (NDBI) for toddlers with ASD. Pathways fits the service delivery model and principles of Texas’ state-funded Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) programs. Pathways was found to be more effective than traditional ECI programs in improving early foundational social communication skills and in reducing parental stress in culturally and economically diverse toddlers with ASD. Pathways shows promise as an effective ASD specific intervention with the potential of being implemented within publicly funded ECI programs.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1104 View / Download Pdf

Maria Pia Bucci1*, Nathalie Goulème1,2, Coline Stordeur3, Eric Acquaviva3, Mathilde Septier3, Aline Lefebvre3, Hugo Peyre3,4,5, Richard Delorme3,4,5

1UMR 1141 Inserm - Paris Diderot University. Robert Debré Hospital, Paris, France
2Lyon Neuroscience Research Center (Inserm U1028 CNRS UMR5292), Lyon, France & Department of Audiology and Otoneurological Evaluation, Civil Hospitals of Lyon, Lyon, France
3Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Robert Debré Hospital, Paris, France
4Paris Diderot University, Paris 7, France
5High Functioning Autism Expert Centre, Fondamental Foundation, Paris, France

We summarize postural instabilities in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and we reported behavioral results suggesting poor cerebellar integration. We conclude that postural measures could be a promising method with which to indirectly observe cerebellar performance in children developmental disabilities such as ASD and/or ADHD.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1101 View / Download Pdf

Peter A. Lichtenberg

Institute of Gerontology & Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute, Wayne State University, USA

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1100 View / Download Pdf