Rüdiger Hardeland*

University of Goettingen, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, Goettingen, Germany

In the traditional view of mood disorders, the circadian system has been insufficiently considered. However, polymorphisms of circadian oscillator genes in bipolar disorder, seasonal affective disorder, and subforms of major depressive disorder as well as demonstrable deviations in overt circadian rhythms indicate a role of the circadian system in these pathologies. Circadian malfunction affects sleep, and sleep deprivation can initiate proinflammatory responses. Being parts of the circadian system, melatonin and sirtuin 1 deserve particular attention. Either of them displays neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and circadian amplitude-enhancing properties, which are of relevance to neurodegeneration that is observed in a number of depressive patients. Notably, both circulating melatonin levels as well as sirtuin 1 expression decline by age. In the gerontological context, melatonin upregulates sirtuin 1, which mediates some of melatonin’s actions. Correction of a deviating circadian system seems to be of value regarding causes that contribute to depressive symptoms.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/3.1128 View / Download Pdf

Moira J van Staaden1,2*, F Scott Hall1,3 and Robert Huber1,2

1Juvatech creative behavioral designs, Maumee, OH 43537, USA

2JP Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind & Behavior, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA

3Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA

Addiction is now recognized as a phenomenon with exceedingly deep evolutionary roots. Addictive plant alkaloids, as secondary metabolites, evolved primarily to counter insect herbivory. Although some views regard addiction as a human/mammal specific, cognitive phenomenon, we suggest that its roots are found in much more fundamental biological mechanisms for learning and motivation, mechanisms which are shared by taxa since the early evolution of bilateral metazoans. According to this view, addiction is fundamentally an invertebrate phenomenon and humans can be viewed as collateral damage in this coevolutionary arms race. Results from a variety of invertebrate preparations demonstrate behavioral and neural consequences of drug exposure, ranging from psychostimulant properties and sensitization, to conditioned cue learning and operant self-administration. This mini review focuses attention on our recent work in crayfish, but there is certainly evidence for the presence of addictionlike phenomena in more ancient invertebrate taxa.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/3.1135 View / Download Pdf
L. Hertzberg1,2*, E. Domany1

1Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

2The Emotion-Cognition Research Center, Shalvata Mental Health Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

The number of Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia, as well as that of subjects studied have increased dramatically over the last years. Nevertheless, biologically meaningful interpretation of GWAS results remains very difficult due to the complexity and heterogeneity of both clinical and genetic aspects of schizophrenia, and the small contribution of each single gene to the disease. Our study presented a methodology that integrated GWAS results with gene expression data, and applied it to schizophrenia. Integration of two types of information, of both DNA-level and of messenger RNA (mRNA) level, increases the validity and reliability of the results and improves our understanding of the biological meaning of the GWAS results. We comment here on the methodology used and the main result of our study.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/3.1132 View / Download Pdf
Qianlan Yin#, Zhuoer Sun#, Weizhi Liu*

Faculty of Psychology and Mental Health, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China

“Shidu Parents” (SDP) means parents whose only child has passed away or is disabled to perform the basic social function and daily living activities due to an accident or other events. These parents cannot conceive or adopt another child. Bereavement is a great grief and threat to mental and physical states evidenced by many studies, but SDP are a new and increasing subgroup emerging in this field, especially in China. The goal of this paper is to review the research literature regarding mental and physical health consequences of SDP and the intertwined influence, thus to add to the corresponding assistance from the government.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/3.1127 View / Download Pdf
Deborah R. Gordon1*, Patricia Benner1, Jodi Halpern2, Catherine Long Popell3, and Patricia W. Kelley4

1University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA

2University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

3Services for Brain Injury, San Jose, CA, USA

4Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Hermeneutic phenomenology provides an alternative to objectifying approaches to understanding Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PTSD is the one major psychiatric diagnosis where social causation is established, yet PTSD is predominantly viewed in terms of the usual neuro-physiological causal models, with traumatic social events viewed as pathogens with dose-related effects. However, framing PTSD as an objective disease state separates it from the narrative historical details of the trauma. Personal stories and cultural meanings of the traumatic events are seen as epiphenomenal, unrelated to the understanding of, and ultimately, the therapeutic treatment of PTSD. Sixty-seven US service members injured in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars who were in the rehabilitation phase of their recovery, and 401 nurses who provided care for service members, were interviewed. Most wounded service members described classic symptoms of PTSD: flashbacks, insomnia, hyperarousal, etc. All experienced disturbance in their sense of place and time: distortions and ruptures between “here” and “there,” “then” and “now.” Effective nursing care required being attuned to where a patient is “at” phenomenologically. Rather than see the occurrence of these symptoms as decontextualized mechanistic reverberations of war, we consider how these symptoms meaningfully reflect actual war experiences and the sense of displacement experienced by service members.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/2.1117 View / Download Pdf

Merlin G. Butler*

Departments of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences and Pediatrics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/2.1120 View / Download Pdf
Judith Edwards*

*Tavistock Clinic NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/2.1121 View / Download Pdf
Lucas Fortaleza de Aquino Ferreira

Hospital de Saúde Mental Professor Frota Pinto, Fortaleza, Brazil

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/2.1118 View / Download Pdf

Gareth Nortje 1* , Absol Uteshit 2

*1 University of South Dakota, Nelspruit, South Africa

2 University of the Sciences, Phalaborwa, South Africa

Many statisticians would agree that, had it not been for hierarchical cognitive therapies in conversational dynamics, the emulation of cognitive reflection might never have occurred. After years of important research into virtual conversations, we verify the study of mood-state-dependent verbal influences, which embodies the theoretical principles of cognitive analytic psychotherapy. In order to answer this riddle, we confirm that even though randomized conversational smalltalk can be made perfect, embedded, and replicated, the effective on mood is no longer questionable1.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/2.1113 View / Download Pdf
Won-Gyo Shin1, Tae Young Lee2*, Jun Soo Kwon1,2

1 Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Seoul, Republic of Korea

*2 Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/2.1110 View / Download Pdf
Rogers Kasirye1*, Rogers Mutaawe2*

1Executive Director, Uganda Youth Development Link, Kampala Uganda

2Senior Programme Manager, Uganda Youth Development Link, Kampala Uganda

The goal of this descriptive study was to examine the relationship between sexual risky behaviors and substance abuse among street and slum youth of Kampala. The study was conducted among youths seeking services for the first time from Drop In center facilities run by Uganda Youth Development Link, located in Kampala City. While several studies have examined risks for substance abuse and sexual risky behaviors among children and adolescents in Uganda, none have identified protective factors among this sub population including street children in Kampala. This study conducted baseline interviews of street children enrolling in a youth intervention program in Kampala City, Uganda. A total of 203 youth between the ages of 14 and 24 were interviewed about their consumption of alcohol, tobacco and other forms of drug use; and sexual risky behaviors. The study results Preliminary results reveal high prevalence of alcohol and other substance use coupled with early sexual risk involvement (e.g. sex without condoms).

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1107 View / Download Pdf
M. Kathryn Jedrziewski1,2,3*, Dara Meekins1, Samuel A. Gorka1, Mariegold E. Wollam5, Mihloti Williams4,5, George A. Grove5, Charles Lwanga4,5, Chelsea M. Stillman4,6, and Kirk I. Erickson4,5

1The Institute on Aging, Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

2Alzheimer’s Disease Core Center, Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

3Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

4Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh

5Department of Psychology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh

6Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1116 View / Download Pdf
Vicente Mustieles1, Carmen Messerlian2, Iris Reina1, Andrea Rodríguez-Carrillo1, Nicolás Olea1, and Mariana F. Fernández1*

*1University of Granada, Center for Biomedical Research (CIBM); Biosanitary Research Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Spain; Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain.

2Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

In 2015 we reviewed the state of knowledge regarding the potential impact of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on child neurobehavior. At that time, we expressed concern about the effects of BPA on children’s behavior, especially when exposure takes place in utero. Since then, the number of human studies addressing the BPA-neurobehavior hypothesis has doubled, most of them reinforcing previous prenatal associations and frequently showing differences between boys and girls. An increasing number of studies have also shown an association between postnatal BPA exposure and diverse neurobehavioral impairments, including attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It may never be possible to establish a causal link between this specific endocrine disruptor and a particular neurobehavioral endpoint; however, research data on the relationship between human BPA exposure and children’s behavior has revealed a relatively consistent pattern that cannot be ignored. The mounting experimental and epidemiologic evidence on neurobehavioral effects support more than ever the need to apply the precautionary principle during development, especially in relation to pregnant women and children. It seems that the time to act has arrived.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1115 View / Download Pdf
Nuwan Dissanayaka1*

*1Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundations Trust, Leeds LS15 8ZB, UK.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1119 View / Download Pdf
Leo Wolmer1,2*, Daniel Hamiel1,3, Lee Pardo-Aviv1, and Nathaniel Laor1,4,5

1 Donald J. Cohen & Irving B. Harris Resilience Center, Association for Children at Risk, Israel

2 Baruch Ivcher School of Psychology, Herzlyia Interdisciplinary Center, Israel

3 Tel-Aviv-Brüll Community Mental Health Center, Clalit Health Services

4 Departments of Psychiatry and Medical Education, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel

5 Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT

Preschool children are exposed to an increasingly wide variety of disasters and terrorist incidents that may have severe effects on their mental health and development. The goal of this paper is to review the research literature regarding the needs of preschoolers in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding: a) the consequences of such events for young children and the main moderating variables influencing the event-consequence association. b) the existing methods for assessment, prevention and intervention to provide recommendations and point out required research and development. We differentiate between screening tools that provide initial evaluation and assessment tools for diagnosing preschooler children's’ pathology and review possible interventions that address the preschool child's needs before, during and after the incident itself. We discuss the challenges in performing research following disaster and terrorism and the lack of dissemination and research of prevention programs and mass interventions for preschoolers. Finally, we emphasize the need for research and intervention programs aimed at dealing with the impact of terrorism and armed conflict on children's worldview.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1111 View / Download Pdf

Karen L. Houseknecht1,2*, C.C. Bouchard1, C.A Black2

1College of Osteopathic Medicine, University of New England, 11 Hills Beach Road, Biddeford, ME 04005, USA
2College of Pharmacy, University of New England, 716 Stevens Avenue, Portland, Maine 04013, USA

Mood spectrum disorders and medications used to treat these disorders, such as atypical antipsychotic drugs (AA), are associated with metabolic and endocrine side effects including obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and increased risk of fractures. Antidepressant medications, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), have also been reported to increase fracture risk in some patients. The pharmacology underlying the increased risk of fractures is currently unknown. Possible mechanisms include alternations in dopaminergic and/or serotonergic signaling pathways. As these medications distribute to the bone marrow as well as to the brain, it is possible that drug-induced fractures are due to both centrally mediated effects as well as direct effects on bone turnover. Given the growing patient population that is prescribed these medications for both on- and off-label indications, understanding the level of risk and the mechanisms underlying drug-induced fractures is important for informing both prescribing and patient monitoring practices.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1106 View / Download Pdf

Pamela Rosenthal Rollins*

University of Texas at Dallas, Callier Center for Communication Disorders, 1966 Inwood Road, Dallas, USA

Early identification and intervention that focus on the core social deficits of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are imperative for these children to be able to reach their optimal potential. This report examines the Pathways Early Autism Intervention (Pathways), a translational parent-mediated, naturalistic developmental behavioral intervention (NDBI) for toddlers with ASD. Pathways fits the service delivery model and principles of Texas’ state-funded Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) programs. Pathways was found to be more effective than traditional ECI programs in improving early foundational social communication skills and in reducing parental stress in culturally and economically diverse toddlers with ASD. Pathways shows promise as an effective ASD specific intervention with the potential of being implemented within publicly funded ECI programs.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1104 View / Download Pdf

Maria Pia Bucci1*, Nathalie Goulème1,2, Coline Stordeur3, Eric Acquaviva3, Mathilde Septier3, Aline Lefebvre3, Hugo Peyre3,4,5, Richard Delorme3,4,5

1UMR 1141 Inserm - Paris Diderot University. Robert Debré Hospital, Paris, France
2Lyon Neuroscience Research Center (Inserm U1028 CNRS UMR5292), Lyon, France & Department of Audiology and Otoneurological Evaluation, Civil Hospitals of Lyon, Lyon, France
3Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Robert Debré Hospital, Paris, France
4Paris Diderot University, Paris 7, France
5High Functioning Autism Expert Centre, Fondamental Foundation, Paris, France

We summarize postural instabilities in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and we reported behavioral results suggesting poor cerebellar integration. We conclude that postural measures could be a promising method with which to indirectly observe cerebellar performance in children developmental disabilities such as ASD and/or ADHD.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1101 View / Download Pdf

Peter A. Lichtenberg

Institute of Gerontology & Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute, Wayne State University, USA

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2959/2018/1.1100 View / Download Pdf